Exfoliantes físicos: scrubs, gommages y microdermoabrasión | Guía de exfoliantes

Hace un par de semanas iniciábamos esta mini guía sobre los exfoliantes y hoy volvemos con la segunda parte.

Y sí, sé que muchas estáis ansiosas por saber más sobre los exfoliantes químicos y enzimáticos, pero no seáis impacientes, ¡todo se andará!

He decidido empezar por los exfoliantes físicos, ¿por qué? bueno, creo que son los que siempre han estado ahí y sobre todo los que más presencia tienen en el mercado.

Los tenemos con base de azúcar o sal, granulados de minerales o frutos secos, y con partículas sintéticas (conocidas como microbeads).

Como mencionamos en el post de hace un par de semanas, la mayor diferencia entre este tipo de productos es el tipo de acción al que sometamos a la piel, por una lado tenemos la química (ácidos) y la mecánica, la que corresponde con los exfoliantes físicos.

En la industria cosmética, cada día aparecen nuevas modas que dan nombre a nuevos productos y en muchas ocasiones no son más que un lavado de cara como gancho publicitario.

Con los exfoliantes físicos ocurre lo mismo, mientras que en inglés tenemos una palabra para cada cosa, en castellano lo llamamos a todo igual: exfoliantes. Por eso hoy los vamos a clasificar de manera global y sencilla para que no te líes, y sepas para qué  sirve cada uno.

1. Scrubs

Los de toda la vida. Conocidos también como peelings o exfoliantes a secas.

De aspecto arenoso y suelto, y con un método sencillo de aplicación: movimientos circulares con las manos o con algún cepillo.

Se retiran con agua y no hacen más que eliminar las células muertas de la piel y su uso es bastante común en tratamientos corporales, aunque también los encontramos para tratamientos faciales.

Ingredientes

Suelen ser más naturales que sintéticos, ya que la mayoría estan hechos a base de azúcar, sal, café, bicarbonato sódico, o cáscara de frutos secos (avellana, nuez, almendra, jojoba).

Su formulación es bastante simple y por eso son los más fáciles de realizar en casa. Junto con el agente exfoliante compañan a la formulación aceites, miel o glicerina, para poder darle un poco más de consistencia a la formula y de paso aportar beneficios extras. 

Son por así decirlo, los más robustos dentro de los exfoliantes físicos.

Si eres de piel grasa o mixta, tendrás que tener cuidado por la base de aceite que lleven, ya que el aceite de coco o de oliva no son los más indicados, y en el caso de usarlos, intenta quitar bien los restos antes de aplicar ninguna otra producto.

Existen infinidad en el mercado, siendo muy conocidos los de Lush o Rituals, aunque como te conté sobre los exfoliantes de labios, muchas veces merece la pena hacerlo en casa. Yo hace poco me compre uno de Lush y viendo lo que cuestan, y sobre todo, lo poco que durán han sacado mi lado de rata de laboratorio en busca de una buena receta casera.

Sin embargo, que la base de un producto sea tan sencilla, no quiere decir que no podamos encontrar exfoliantes » tan simples» con más de 20 ingredientes en el mercado…

2. Gommages = geles/ mascarillas exfoliantes + micropartículas

Si lo traducimos a los productos que están en las estanterías de las drogerias serían aquellos que tienen un formato gel con micropartículas suspendidas y que comunmente también se llaman exfoliantes. Son muy comunes en productos de uso corporal, aunque también los podemos encontrar en formulas para tratamiento facial, y suelen ser muy llamativos por sus bolitas de colores y fantasía.

Lo que los diferencia de los Scrubs es básicamente su textura, en los anteriores teniamos una pasta arenosa y suelta mientras que en estos tenemos una fórmula más consistente tipo gel.

Su formato en mascarilla también es habitual, y tienen como ingredientes agua  junto con arcillas, caolín u óxido de titanio para poder obtener una formula tipo pasta. Se dejan secar y se retiran con agua/ muselina/ trapo de microfibra dando masajes, lo que hará que las micropartículas que se incluyen hagan la exfoliación mecánica.

Además, muchas de estas formulas incluyen ácidos de fruta o enzimas, como papaína, y exfoliantes químicos, como los α- y β- hidroxiacidos (AHA y BHA), como el ácido glicólico o el salicílico, que hacen una exfoliación más profunda.

Geles y mascarillas con contenido en AHA o BHA son para mi gusto el mejor tipo de producto para iniciarse en los exfoliantes químicos y sobre todo, para ver si como reacciona tu piel a ellos.

Dentro de estos gommages no podemos olvidarnos de productos como son los Microdermoabrasivos. El diámetro de sus micropartículas suele ser menor que en un exfoliante común lo que hace que sean un poco más agresivos. Como ingredientes usarán microcristales de arroz, silica u óxido de aluminio.

Si tienes la piel seca con escamaciones o demasiado sensible, ten cuidado a la hora de elegirlos. Los ácidos de la fruta y los hidroxiácidos no son de lo más adecuado si no están bien formulados para tu tipo de piel.

¿Cuál son sus agentes exfoliantes?

Al igual que en los anteriores tenemos micropartículas naturales  como la cáscara de frutos secos o micropartículas de arroz, micro-polvo como el bicarbonato sódico o el óxido de aluminio, que proporcioarán esa exfoliación mecánica que estamos buscando.

En el caso de las micropartículas sintéticas nos encontramos el polietileno, poliestireno o polipropileno, y entre ingredientes sintéticos bio-degradables como e polihidroxibutirato (PBH) derivado de la fermentación de azúcares.

 

exfoliantes-fisicos-i-composicion-gommage

La cara B de los exfoliantes

Los famosos microbeads sintéticos. Solución al problema de usar sal o azúcar como gránulos, ya que se disuelven en el agua y por tanto son menos duraderos en contacto con la humedad. Por no decir, la versatilidad de colores que podemos obtener…

Aunque el más adelante hablaremos más a fondo sobre el problema de su uso, de manera resumida estos microbeads son microesferas de polímeros sintéticos, que dependiendo del diámetro ofrecerán un efecto más o menos abrasivo en la piel.

¿Cómo identificarlos?

Simple, aparecerán como Polietileno (polyethylene, PE) o  polipropileno (polypropylene, PP) en la etiqueta.

El problema que genera tanta polémica: contamina el fondo marino.

De hecho Canadá los ha clasificado como tóxicos, y al igual que con el testado en animales, vamos hacía la prohibición del uso de estos materiales en cosmética.

Los cepillos faciales, muselinas o esponjas también entran dentro de los exfoliantes físicos, pero creo que por hoy ¡hemos tenido bastante charleta de la señorita Pepis!

Por si acaso acabas de aterrizar en el blog te dejo un par de artículos relacionados. La primera parte de esta guía de exfoliantes, y otro dónde te explico por qué no te deberías saltar el uso de la crema solar, y menos aún cuando usas estos productos. ¡Espero que los disfrutes!

Y si te ha gustado, no dejes de comentar y compartir! 

¡Nos leemos pronto!

171 pensamientos en “Exfoliantes físicos: scrubs, gommages y microdermoabrasión | Guía de exfoliantes

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