¿Debo usar cosméticos no comedogénicos?

El término no comedogénico es habitual en productos destinados a pieles grasas o con tendencia acneica, y junto con el reclamo hipoalergénico, de los más usados. 

Pero no todo es oro lo que reluce. Y aunque es cierto que existen ciertos ingredientes menos adecuados si tenemos piel acneica, el término no comedogénico no está estandarizado. No existe un test analítico definitivo para saber si un ingrediente será o no comedogénico, y por supuesto, no está regulado.

Sí, nos la pueden dar con queso pero bien.

Que un producto sea comedogénico no significa que salga acné o un comedón con el primer uso. Todo dependerá de el tipo de piel, hormonas (embarazo, lactancia o la propia menstruación), algunos ingredientes cosméticos, alimentación y hábitos saludables, entre otros. Algunas personas no desarrollarán nunca acné al usar un producto teóricamente comedogénico y otras días después o incluso meses.

¿Qué significa comedogénico?

Que un ingrediente sea comedogénico significa que promueve la formación de comedones (infección: puntos blancos, acné) y/o puntos negros (sebo oxidado que se acumula en el poro). 

¿Todo el mundo tiene el mismo problema con las sustancias comedogénicas?

No. Normalmente, las más problemáticas son las pieles grasas, ya que su producción de sebo es mayor. Aún así, en una piel seca puede ocurrir lo mismo.

Un exceso de secreción sebácea promueve la aparición de acné. Pero solo en aquellos que tienen un exceso, ya que el propio sebo, cuya composición se basa en lípidos, ceramidas, ácidos grasos o colesterol, entre otros, hace que tengamos una piel radiante y joven.  Vamos, nos da ese glow que tanto buscan las pieles secas.

¿Cómo sé si un ingrediente es o no comedogénico?

Existen unas famosas listas o tablas dónde podemos ver el grado de comedogenicidad de un ingrediente determinado.

Sustancias con un valor entre 5-4 son altamente comedogénicas, entre 3-2 moderadas (sigue siendo comedogénica), 1 leve, 0 no comedogénicas.

Sin embargo, existe una gran discrepancia de resultados en función del laboratorio donde se realicen las pruebas y test de comedogenicidad. Lo que hace que resultados finales no sean del todo fiables. 

La gran mayoría de ensayos se realizan en personas, sujetos a condicionantes externos como pueden ser el clima dónde se realiza la prueba, edad del participante o tipo de piel.

No es lo mismo realizar un ensayo en un lugar con humedad que en un ambiente seco, o en participantes de 18-25 años que de 25-30 años, donde existen diferencias abismales en el tipo de piel (debido a cambios hormonales). Lo que hace que muchos estudios y conclusiones no sean válidos para todos. 

Lo mismo ocurre con la zona de aplicación de los productos. Muchos se realizan en la zona de la espalda, en ningún caso extrapolable a la zona del rostro.  [1]

Por tanto, las tablas comedogénicas nos pueden dar una idea sobre un ingrediente determinado, pero nunca sabremos si realmente nos producirá acné o no un producto que lo contenga en su fórmula final. 

¿Debo fijarme en cada uno de los ingredientes que aparecen en la etiqueta?

NO. Qué un producto sea comedogénico no significa que la fórmula completa lo sea. Depende de su concentración y sobre todo, de su formulación. 

El ejemplo más sencillo es del aceite de coco. 

El aceite de coco tiene cerca de un 45% de ácido laúrico en su composición (dependiendo del fabricante), y es conocido por ser altamente comedogénico. Por eso, no es recomendable usar aceite de coco como crema hidratante para el rostro (dejando de lado que no es un producto destinado a uso cosmético, sino alimentario).

En cambio, existen aceites, cremas hidratantes, limpiadores o mascarillas que incluyen en su composición ácido láurico y no ocasionan ningún problema en la piel.  

Post recomendado: ¿Son todos los aceites iguales?

Un producto formulado para piel grasa con ácido láurico en su composición no tiene por qué ser problemático, ya que su fórmula está especialmente diseñada para este tipo de pieles. Su proporción dentro de la fórmula junto con el resto de ingredientes, harán que el producto final sea apto y no produzca ningún problema al aplicarlo. 

¿Cómo saber si un ingrediente produce reacción o alergia?

Cuando adquirimos un producto nuevo y queremos introducirlo en nuestra rutina, lo primero de todo es hacerlo de manera paulatina. Es decir, no podemos usar 3 productos nuevos de golpe, ya que si existe cualquier reacción alérgica (ya sea aparición de acné o una posible irritación), no sabremos qué producto es. Tiene su lógica ¿no?

La otra manera, y la más recomendable si tenemos la piel muy reactiva o sensible, es probarla en el brazo. En el caso del acné, es raro que podamos saber si toleraremos o no 

¿Debo saber leer etiquetas para evitar ingredientes,  supuestamente, comedogénicos?

Rotundamente, no.

Actualmente existe la moda de tener que saber descifrar una lista de ingredientes al dedillo y enumerar qué ingrediente es un emulsionante, conservante o tiene acción antioxidante.

La realidad es que el consumidor no debería tener que preocuparse por leer etiquetas, y mucho menos, usar aplicaciones móviles que alertan de su (no)-toxicidad (si eres usuario de Ingred o EWG, libera espacio de tu smartphone y aprovecha para guardar fotos de tus vacaciones). Conocer algunos trucos, esta bien, pero no hace falta saber de formulación para comprar un cosmético.

De hecho, por mucho que leamos etiquetas, nunca sabremos cómo está formulado. Las técnicas y tecnología usada para su formulación no se reflejan en el INCI. 

La mejor manera de acertar es usar productos destinados según tu tipo de piel. 


[1] Analysis of comedone, sebum and porphyrin on the face and body for comedogenicity assay, Skin Res Technol. 2016 May;22(2):164-9.

[2]  Fulton, Comedogenicity and irritancy of commonly used ingredients in skin care products, J Soc Cosmet Chem 1989, 40, 321-333.

154 pensamientos en “¿Debo usar cosméticos no comedogénicos?

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