3 Ingredientes para tu crema hidratante: ceramidas, glicerina y ácido hialurónico | Parte II

Después del exitazo de la primera parte de este post, aquí os traigo los últimos tres ingredientes ideales en una crema hidratante.

En la entrada anterior hablamos de la niacinamida, pantenol y manteca de Karité y puedes acceder a ella aquí. Hoy hablamos de dos humectantes: la glicerina y el ácido hialurónico, y otro ingrediente clave: las ceramidas y los lípidos.

Antes de empezar, seguro que te preguntas porqué me dejo en el tintero ingredientes tan interesantes a nivel cosmético como son los antioxidantes, los hidroxiácidos  o la familia de los retinoides. Sencillo, por que estamos hablando de cremas hidratantes, cuya función final es solo hidratar/humectar la piel y acondicionar.

Nada más.

Distinción es muy interesante a tener en cuenta cuando queremos elegir la hidratante perfecta. Aunque hoy en día hay formulaciones estupendas en el mercado, de manera general: no hay una crema para todo. Y mucho menos, con todos los ingredientes que mencionamos en estas entradas. 

Entonces ¿para qué me estas contando todo esto? Para que sepas identificar qué necesitas, qué puede darle un extra a tu crema hidratante, pero sobre todo, para que aprendas a ver cómo funcionan los diferentes activos.

Al final dependerá de la fórmula final, y por mucho que contenga niacinamida, no servirá de nada si su concentración no es la suficiente para cumplir tu objetivo.

Esfingolípidos y ceramidas (emoliente)

De las ceramidas hablamos de manera extensa en esta entrada.

Son uno de los ingredientes clave en cremas destinadas a tratar dermatitis atópicas o en pieles con la barrera cutánea alterada (eczemas, piel seca, xerosis) cuya función base es ser emoliente y parcialmente oclusivo. Con esto logrará aumentar la sensación de hidratación/nutrición a nivel de estrato córneo (reduce la perdida de agua transepidérmica) y ,por tanto, realiza mejor su función barrera. 

Entrada recomendada: Ceramidas | CeraVe ¿reclamo publicitario o realidad?

Algunas de mis favoritas:

Glicerina (humectante)

La glicerina es el humectante más común y habitual en las cremas, tónicos y lociones hidratantes.

Aunque es un ingrediente bastante infravalorado, es un humectante que funciona. Su mala “fama” viene por que en ocasiones se abusa de ella en las formulaciones al ser un producto relativamente barato (depende mucho de su fuente de origen) y si el fabricante se pasa con la concentración en la fórmula final, un exceso de este ingrediente puede dar ligar a texturas tipo gel demasiado pegajosas. 

Los fabricantes recomiendan entre un 2-5% máximo de glicerina en la fórmula final.

Al ser un humectante, absorbe agua del medio. Ese medio será el ambiente (atmósfera) o nuestra propia piel.

¿Qué ocurre en climas donde existe poca humedad? Que podemos tener el efecto contrario, y en vez de humectar la piel, se deshidrate. Es decir, la glicerina puede atraer el agua que se encuentra en el NMF (natural moisturizing factor), epidermis/dermis, y finalmente evaporarse en el ambiente. En climas húmedos ocurre lo opuesto. Por eso recomendar una crema si resides en un ambiente seco a personas cuya humedad relativa es más elevada puede ser una mala idea. Lo que te funciona a ti, no funciona al resto. 

¿Cómo solucionamos este problema? Añadiendo oclusivos en las fórmulas cosméticas. Por eso, a no ser que tengas una fórmula con un porcentaje extremadamente elevado de glicerina sin oclusivos, no suele existir ningún problema.

Los oclusivos más habituales son: petrolatum, mineral oil, hydrogenated polyisobutene o dimethicone en la cosmética convencional, o manteca de karité o cacao, entre otros, en la cosmética eco o natural.

Algunas de mis favoritas :

Ácido hialurónico (humectante)

¿Pensabas que me había olvidado? ¡No! El ácido hialurónico es otro ingrediente que suma en las cremas hidratantes. Ya sea de bajo o alto peso molecular, todos valen.

Es una molécula biocompatible o biomimética, es decir, que se encuentra en nuestro organismo (dermis reticular) y ,por tanto, la probabilidad de interacciones y posibles alergias es prácticamente nula. Con el ácido hialurónico ocurre algo similar que con el ácido retinoico, al ser uno de los ingredientes empleados en el campo sanitario (medicina/farmacéutica) ha sido testado tanto en animales como en ensayos clínicos en humanos donde su seguridad y eficacia han sido probados.

¿Qué es lo interesante de este ingrediente? Su versatilidad en función del peso molecular.

¿Alto o bajo peso molecular?

El ácido hialurónico es un polisacárido aniónico (glucosaminoglucanos), que se asemeja a un polímero debido a que en su estructura se unen unidades, monómeros o dímeros. En este caso, disacáridos de ácido D-glucurónico y N-acetil-D-glucosamina.

Estos disacáridos forman una cadena lineal y en función del número de unidades tendremos un polímero de mayor o menor peso molecular (poli= muchos), lo que dará a un polímero de alta o baja densidad, que es capaz de absorber 1000 veces su peso en agua. Es decir:  se hincha y actúa como una “esponja”.

El ácido hialurónico de alto peso molecular (hyaluronic acid) actúa como humectante en los cosméticos, mientras que el de bajo peso molecular (sodium hyaluronate o también hidrolized hyaluronic acid) tiene propiedades antiedad.

En contacto con el agua, el ácido hialurónico se hincha, retiene el agua en su estructura y permite aportar ese extra de hidratación cuando se trata del HA de alto peso molecular. Ingrediente perfecto en tratamientos destinados a pieles secas, con xerosis debido a tratamientos como pueden ser la radioterapia,o también en pieles atópicas con eczema y prurito (picor). En la mayoría de los casos da lugar a un fórmula ligera tipo gel y sin aspecto graso, de ahí, que le guste a casi todas las pieles.

Por otro lado, el HA de bajo peso molecular si que consigue tener una permeabilidad cutánea mayor debido a su tamaño, de entre 20–300 kDa, y estimula la propia síntesis de ácido hialurónico reticular. Mientras que el de alto peso molecular ronda los  1000–1400 kDa, y solo actúa a nivel de humectante en la superficie de la piel.

Esto último como siempre, hay que cogerlo con «`pinzas». Piensa que los estudios se hacen en condiciones determinadas y con una fórmula diferente a la que encontramos en un producto cosmético terminado. Personalmente, no apostaría mis arrugas y aumento de volumen a un cosmético con ácido hialurónico de bajo peso molecular. Recuerda que si un ingrediente llega a dermis, debe demostrar que no produce efectos adversos, pero tampoco genera beneficio alguno. 

Por tanto:

  • mejora (que no elimina, pequeña pero grande distinción) el aspecto de las arrugas, sobre todo el de bajo peso molecular
  • mejora la elasticidad de la piel e hidratación 
  • alivio picor (calmante): casos de eczema con prurito (picor) sobre todo en fórmulas ligeras y tipo gel

¿100% ácido hialurónico?

Seguro que lo has leído: ácido hialurónico puro. ¿Existe? Va a ser que no. Un ejemplo es este de Pestle&Mortar.

El ácido hialurónico (ya sea se alto o bajo peso molecular) debe estar disuelto en un disolvente (aka solubilizante en cosmética). Por lo que matemáticamente es inviable.

¿Qué ocurre en estos casos? Que lo que reclaman es el % de gel de hialurónico que contienen.

Este gel se consigue disolviendo ácido hialurónico en agua y formando un gel de hialurónico, que no suele exceder el 1-2%, ya que si no tendríamos una solución sobresaturada y el polvo no se disolvería.

De ese gel podemos a) usar todo: tendríamos un 100% GEL de hialurónico o b) parcialmente: por ejemplo, el 40%, como en uno de los productos que te pongo al final de este post.

Por tanto, si buscas ácido hialurónico en tus cremas, no te asustes si lo encuentras a mitad-final de la fórmula. Es lo correcto y no te están timando. 

Algunos de mis favoritos:

  • Gel de hialurónico al 40% de Farmacia la Esparteria (*) Hidratante muy ligera que a las pieles normal-grasa les encanta. Aquí hago un poco de promo del perfil de Geno en Instagram, la reina de los esquemas de hidroxiácidos.
  • HyaluB5 de La Roche Posay. Lo combinan también con pantenol y lo hace un combo ganador. Aunque es una textura cremi-gel, en verano a 40ºC puede que una piel grasa la sienta pesada, pero para otoño-invierno es una maravilla. (**)

¿Te has quedado con ganas de más? ¡Deja en comentarios cual es tu ingrediente favorito y quizás hablemos de él en un momento futuro!


*Muestra de prensa. Consulta mi política de publicidad en el Blog aquí.

** Link de afiliados de Amazon

Bibliografía:

Ceramidas

[1] Sugarman et al., Efficacy of a lipid-based barrier repair formulation in moderate-to-severe pediatric atopic dermatitis, J Drugs Dermatol. 2009, 8(12):1106-11.

[2] Chang et al., A daily skincare regimen with a unique ceramide and filaggrin formulation rapidly improves chronic xerosis, pruritus, and quality of life in older adults, Geriatr Nurs. 2018, 39(1):24-28. doi: 10.1016/j.gerinurse.2017.05.002.

[3] Z.D. Draelos, The science behind skin care: moisturizers, J Cosmet Dermatol. 2018;1–7.

Glicerina

[4] J. Knowlton and S. Pearce, Handbook of cosmetic science and technology, Elsevier, ISBN-1-85617-197-3.

Ácido hialurónico

[5] L.C- Becker et al., Final Report of the Safety Assessment of Hyaluronic Acid, Potassium Hyaluronate, and Sodium Hyaluronate, International Journal of Toxicology 2009, 28.

[6] M. Essendoubi et al., Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy, Skin Res Technol. 2016 Feb;22(1):55-62. doi: 10.1111/srt.12228

[7] T. Pavicic et al., Efficacy of cream-based novel formulations of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights in anti-wrinkle treatment, J Drugs Dermatol. 2011, 10(9), 990-1000.

[8] Sundaram H, Mackiewicz N, Burton E, Peno-Mazzarino L, Lati E, Meunier S, Pilot Comparative Study of the Topical Action of a Novel, Crosslinked Resilient Hyaluronic Acid on Skin Hydration and Barrier Function in a Dynamic, Three-Dimensional Human Explant Model. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016, 15(4), 434-41.

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