Mitos sobre fotoprotección solar

Mayo y Junio son dos meses clave para bombardear los medios de comunicación, blogs, redes sociales y otras plataformas como YouTube sobre protección solar. Lo curioso es que con tanta información, el mensaje que recibe el consumidor final es confuso.

No sabemos si usar cremas solares con protección 30, 50 o 50+, si son mejores los filtros orgánicos (químicos) o inorgánicos (minerales/físicos), si bloquea la síntesis de vitamina D, o si los filtros solares de farmacia son mejores que los del supermercado.

Si a todo esto le sumamos los parabenos, siliconas y el petrolatum del demonio, solo nos quedan dos soluciones: comprar la tan cotizada crema Badger en amazon o realizar tu propia crema solar.

Mala idea.

1. Los filtros químicos absorben la radiación ultravioleta, los minerales no.

FALSO

Es el más extendido. Pero la realidad es que ambos filtros funcionan de manera similar.

El origen de la clasificación de los filtros solares como químicos o físicos se basaba en algo tan simple como su solubilidad. Se determinó que los filtros químicos (orgánicos) eran aquellos cuyo estado es líquido o solubles en fase acuosa u oleosa, mientras que los físicos (inorgánicos) son insolubles y necesitan ser dispersados.

En 1999, Nikiforos Kollias [1] ya afirmaba que esta clasificación era errónea y que los filtros físicos absorbían la radiación UV. A día de hoy, esta definición sigue teniendo connotaciones erróneas, ya que de manera habitual se afirma que:

  • Los filtros químicos funcionan a través de una reacción química inducida por la radiación solar
  • Los filtros minerales lo bloquean y reflectan la radiación solar como si fuese una pantalla

Artículo recomendado: Conceptos básicos sobre los filtros solares

Cómo funcionan los filtros solares frente a la radiación ultravioleta

Filtros físicos: dióxido de titanio y óxido de zinc. Y la clave está en que son semiconductores, es decir, tienen una fiesta de electrones que van y vienen.

Cuando la radiación ultravioleta incide sobre ellos,  los óxidos metálicos absorben energía ultravioleta con una longitud de onda entre 400-280 nm (UVA+UVB). Esta energía absorbida, hace que los electrones de la capa de valencia (basal) se exciten y “salten” a la banda de conducción pasando a un estado excitado.

En la vuelta a la calma, emiten una radiación con una energía menor que la incidente. Transforman la radiación ultravioleta radiación térmica, calor. 

Espectro de absorción de filtros orgánicos e inorgáncos, Uli Osterwalder & Bernd Herzog, 2009 [6]

Filtros químicos: compuestos orgánicos (base de carbono, hidrógeno y oxígeno) y poseen un grupo cromóforo en su estructura.

Lo característico de su estructura es que tienen dobles enlaces conjugados. De nuevo, baile de electrones.

¿Cuándo pegan el salto? Cuando la radiación solar indice sobre ellos. En ese momento los electrones “saltan”, solo que en este caso no tenemos banda de conducción si no un quebradero de cabeza cuántico transiciones electrónicas a orbitales moleculares.

Los electrones saltan de un orbital de la capa de valencia a otro excitado que este vacío (de ahí que sea necesario un enlace doble), cuando se relaja regresa a la posición inicial y la energía procedente de la radiación ultravioleta se transforma radiación térmica, calor.

Los filtros físicos absorben el 95% de la radiación ultravioleta y solo reflectan el 5% restante

Cole et al publicaron en 2015 [2] un artículo donde se cuantificaba cuánta radiación solar absorben los filtros solares físicos y cuánta reflejan, siendo la cantidad reflejada inferior a 5%. Los filtros físicos no funcionan por que reflecten la radiación solar, si no por que absorben en un 95% la radiación ultravioleta.

¿Y por qué se ven blancos? Por que reflejan la luz visible. [3]

2. Los filtros químicos funcionan por que se produce una reacción química con la piel

FALSO.

Si repasas la figura de arriba, verás que aparece hv, que significa que la reacción tiene como activador una fuente externa de energía, la radiación ultravioleta.

La definición de reacción química significa que un sustrato se transforma en otro totalmente diferente debido a condicionantes externos. Estos pueden ser: reacción con otros sustratos, cambio de temperatura, presión o fuente de energía externa, como lo es la radiación solar.

Evidentemente podemos combinar todos en uno y tener una superreacción. Pero la clave está en lo que sale después de la ecuación: un producto totalmente diferente del de partida.

Cuando sometemos un compuesto químico a una fuente de energía como es la luz solar le pueden pasar dos cosas:

  • Que se transforme en un compuesto diferente 
  • Que no le pase nada a nivel estructural (pero sí electrónico como hemos visto arriba)

Y esto último es lo que ocurre con los filtros solares. Cuando los exponemos a una fuente externa, saltan, se ponen contentos y se relajan. Y vuelta a empezar.

Lo que esta pasando no es una reacción química, si no una reacción fotoquímica a nivel electrónico. En cualquier caso, la reacción no es con la piel, si no con la fuente de energía, la radiación solar.

Pero los filtros, tanto inorgánicos como orgánicos, permanecen tal y como están.

3. Fotoestabilidad: los filtros orgánicos no son fotoestables y generan radicales libres. 

LOS INORGÁNICOS, TAMBIÉN.

En la entrada de la vitamina C, hablamos de que el ácido L-ascórbico no es fotoestable, es decir, se degrada con la radiación ultravioleta.

Cuando surgieron los primeros filtros solares orgánicos, el más empleado debido a su amplio espectro de absorción en UV era la Avobenzona, que es fotoinestable (o fotosensible, como lo quieras llamar). Es decir, que pasado un tiempo se degrada con la luz solar.

Por eso, era tan poco eficiente usar solo Avobenzona como filtro solar, por que se degrada y el protector solar dejaría de ser eficaz.

Sin embargo, actualmente no se apuesta por una sola sustancia capaz de absorber la radiación UV, si no por la sinergia de varias. En el caso de tener filtros más inestables, como la avobenzona, se incorporan otros a la mezcla que hace que sean más estables e igual de eficaz. [4, 5, 6].

Por otro lado, existen los test de fotoestabilidad (ISO 18811:2018), que permiten conocer si la mezcla es estable en el periodo de tiempo que reclama el fabricante.

¿Qué significa que sea eficaz? Que funcione en el tiempo  y en la zona del UV indicada que reclama el fabricante

Si reaccionen con la radiación UV, estamos ante una reacción radicalaria. Las sustancias orgánicas perderían un electrón y tendríamos robo de electrones debido a que se generan radicales libres.

Degradación fotoquímica del óxido de titanio, luz solar y oxígeno, Smijs 2011

¿Y qué ocurre con los filtros inorgánicos? Pues que también pueden generar radicales libres, [7] solo que al igual que en el caso de los filtros orgánicos, la cantidad es imperceptible y posible de ser neutralizada con los propios antioxidantes que tenemos en la piel. [8] Otro motivo más para incluir antioxidantes en tu rutina de cuidado personal.

Una afirmación muy típica cuando queremos denigrar, por ejemplo, un solar de super o un solar con filtros químicos es que no son estables. A no ser que seas un infiltrado del fabricante y conozcas los datos reales, solo sabes si el laboratorio ha realizado estos ensayos preguntando. Alegar que el solar de tu competencia o que en función de sus ingredientes es inestable es irresponsable, sobre todo, por que en el 99.99% tiran la piedra y esconden la mano. Es decir, los datos reales brillan por su ausencia.

3. Los filtros orgánicos deben aplicarse 20-30 minutos antes para “activarse”

FALSO

Si esto fuese real, no sabríamos dónde absorben los materiales, daríamos palos de ciego y jugaríamos a ensayo-error continuamente.

Antes de realizar los ensayos SPF in vivo (obligatorio), UVA (opcional) o fotoestabilidad del producto finalizado (fórmula cosmética), tenemos que conocer las propiedades de los materiales. Lo que llamamos caracterización de materiales.

Algunas propiedades que se evalúan son: solubilidad (agua, disolventes orgánicos y/o acuosos), estabilidad térmica (punto de fusión/ebullición) o si absorben en el UV-Vis (UltraVioleta- Visible). Y esto es lo que nos interesa a nosotros. Conocer en que zona del espectro UV-Vis absorbe nuestro material.

¿Cómo se hace? Usando un aparato estupendo: un espectrofotómetro UV-Vis y nos permite conocer la absorción de la radiación ultravioleta y visible de una determinada muestra (analito).

¿Cómo lo mide? Como vimos al principio, cuando se irradia un material, ya sea con una fuente de radiación natural (luz solar) o artificial (espectrofotómetro) comienza el baile de electrones y pasan a un estado activado. Cuando se relajan, eliminan el exceso de energía en forma de calor. El valor podremos obtenerlo en función de la transmitancia u absorbancia. [para más detalles libro al canto 9, 10, 11 ].

¿Necesita un tiempo de activación la sustancia para comenzar a absorber radiación solar? No. Cuando la sustancia se irradia con una fuente de energía, los electrones comienzan a bailar. Y bailan en el bote de reactivos, en el tanque, en el envase final y en tu piel.

Artículo recomedado: Qué ensayos pasa un protector solar antes de salir al mercado

¿Por qué hay que aplicarse entonces el protector solar unos 15-20 minutos antes?

En realidad existen dos motivos. Uno más psicológico y otro más científico. Y ambos casos se aplican a los dos tipos de filtros: inorgánicos y orgánicos. No hay distinción.

El primero le da valor a el producto final. Hace que el consumidor tenga en cuenta que debe aplicar protector solar antes de casa y no cuando esta plantando la sombrilla.

El científico: cuando aplicamos un cosmético el fenómeno más destacado que ocurre es la evaporación del disolvente (alcohol denat., propylene glycol) y posterior formación de un film.

Sí, unos activos cosméticos pueden penetrar hasta las capas más internas de la epidermis, otros se quedan en el estrato córneo y otros se evaporan por arte de magia.

Al evaporarse, el resto de ingredientes “precipitan” y dejan rastro. Lo que da lugar a pensar que la absorción de radiación ultravioleta antes y después es diferente y , por tanto, a un SPF diferente. [12]

Además tenemos otro problema: el de la homogeneidad. Quizás en la playa con la arena ya pegada en el cuerpo, no es lo más aconsejable aplicarse la primera capa de crema solar. Mejor desnudo en casa y distribuyendo la crema solar de manera uniforme.

En 2017 salió un estudio donde precisamente se evaluaba que no era necesario esperar más de 10 minutos después de aplicar un filtro solar, orgánico e inorgánico. Más o menos el tiempo que tarda en evaporarse el disolvente. [13]

Por suerte, los filtros solares no se miden con test de laboratorio, si no que el SPF se calcula con estándares ISO in vitro, in vivo y algunos laboratorios (véase la polémica de ISDIN y la OCU), realizan estos ensayos en diferentes laboratorios y varias veces. Además, pasar un test de SPF cuesta dinero, por lo que normalmente tenemos un SPF mayor del que reclama el fabricante.

¿Y en el rostro durante todo el año? Pues en este caso lo suyo es usar un poco el sentido común. Si vas a salir a la calle sin maquillar, puedes aplicar tranquilamente tu protector solar y que se asiente en el rato que terminas de ponerte los zapatos y sales de casa.

Si te vas a maquillar.. pues seguramente seas de lxs que espera un rato para evitar la formación de pelotillas.

Más sencillo, imposible.

Conclusión

  1. Los filtros orgánicos e inorgánicos funcionan igual: absorben la radiación UV.
  2. Los fitros orgánicos no reaccionan con la piel y no penetran en la célula, esto último es bastante descabellado. Sobre todo, cuando están muertas. Si tuviesen que reaccionar con algo, sería con la luz solar que ocurre cuando la mezcla es fotoinestable o ha pasado el tiempo límite que indica el fabricante.
  3. Ambos, orgánicos e inorgánicos, deben aplicarse antes para evaporar disolventes y que precipiten los filtros en la superficie de la piel (formación de film), no para que se activen. Pero con unos 5-10 minutos estas listx 😊

Otros mitos ya estudiados en el Blog:

  1. No hagas tu fotoprotector casero.
  2. Los aceites vegetales NO sirven como protector solar.

Si te ha gustado, ¡comparte! seguro que has escuchado estos mitos más de una vez.

 

 

Referencias

 [1] Kollias N. The Absorption Properties of «Physical» Sunscreens. Arch Dermatol.1999;135(2):209–a–210. doi:10-1001/pubs. Arch Dermatol.-ISSN-0003-987x-135-2-dlt0299

[2] Cole, C. , Shyr, T. and Ou‐Yang, H. (2016), Metal oxide sunscreens protect skin by absorption, not by reflection or scattering. Photodermatol. Photoimmunol. Photomed., 32: 5-10. doi:10.1111/phpp.12214

[3] Richer, V, Kharazmi, P, Lee, TK, Kalia, S, Lui, H. Quantifying the visual appearance of sunscreens applied to the skin using indirect computer image colorimetry. Photodermatol Photoimmunol Photomed. 2018; 34: 130– 136. https://doi.org/10.1111/phpp.12361

[4] Lademann J, Schanzer S, Jacobi U, Schaefer H, Pflücker F, Driller H, Beck J,

Meinke M, Roggan A, Sterry W Synergy effects between organic and inorganic UV filters in sunscreens, J Biomed Opt. 2005 Jan-Feb;10(1):14008, doi: 10.1117/1.1854112

[5] Beasley DG, Meyer TA, Characterization of the UVA protection provided by avobenzone, zinc oxide, and titanium dioxide in broad-spectrum sunscreen products., Am J Clin Dermatol. 2010 Dec 1;11(6):413-21. doi:10.2165/11537050-000000000-00000.

[6] Uli Osterwalder and Bernd Herzog, Chemistry and Properties of Organic and Inorganic UV Filters in Clinical guide to sunscreens and photoprotection / edited by Henry W. Lim, Zoe Diana Draelos, 2009 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

[7] Smijs, T. G., & Pavel, S. (2011). Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles in sunscreens: focus on their safety and effectiveness. Nanotechnology, science and applications4, 95–112. doi:10.2147/NSA.S19419

[8] Sebastiano Di Bucchianico, Francesca Cappellini, Florane Le Bihanic, Yuning Zhang, Kristian Dreij, Hanna L. Karlsson, Genotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles assessed by mini-gel comet assay and micronucleus scoring with flow cytometry, Mutagenesis, Volume 32, Issue 1, 1 January 2017, Pages 127–137, https://doi.org/10.1093/mutage/gew030

[9] L. Hernández Hernández, C. González Pérez, Introducción al análisis instrumental, 2002, Ariel. ISBN: 9788434480438

[10] Apuntes de espectrofotometría, Universidad de Girona.

[11] Espectrofometría: Espectros de absorción y cuantificación colorimétrica de biomoléculas Nieves Abril Díaz , J. Antonio Bárcena Ruiz , Emilio Fernández Reyes , Aurora Galván Cejudo , Jesús Jorrín Novo , José Peinado Peinado , Fermín Toribio Meléndez-Valdés , Isaac Túnez Fiñana.

[12] Binks BP, Brown J, Fletcher PD, Johnson AJ , Marinopoulos I, Crowther  JM, Thompson MA, Evaporation of Sunscreen Films: How the UV Protection Properties Change, ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2016 Jun 1;8(21):13270-81. doi:10.1021/acsami.6b02696.

[13] Gálvez, M. , Aguilera, J. , Buendía, E. A., Sánchez‐Roldán, C. and Herrera‐Ceballos, E. (2018), Time required for a standard sunscreen to become effective following application: a UV photography study. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 32: e123-e124. doi:10.1111/jdv.14626

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