33 preguntas frecuentes sobre cosmética: ¿puede un adulto usar crema solar infantil? ¿estropea el esmalte de uñas? (Parte II) #HappyBirthdayToMe

Seguimos con las 33 preguntas sobre ciencia y cosmética. El tema de la entrada de hoy, como no podía ser de otra manera, es la fotoprotección solar. 

Algunas preguntas muy sencillas de responder, pero que generan dudas habituales. 

Recuerda que si tienes más preguntas, puedes enviarlas a cienciaycosmetica@gmail.com. Puede que no las responda en esta tanda, pero para las sorpresas que vienen a finales de año, seguro que caen. 

¡Vamos allá!

8. ¿Puede un adulto usar un protector solar infantil?

Sí, pero no al revés.

Aunque pensamos que los niños o bebes son adultos en pequeño, lo cierto es que no es así.

La epidermis de los niños es mucho más fina y, por tanto, la vuelve más permeable que la de un adulto. Lo que se traduce en riesgo de reacciones alérgicas e irritación.

Normalmente, los productos destinados a niños se testan en panelistas adultos, y si no hay reacciones alérgicas, se pasa a grupo destino (infantil). Además, las fórmulas de los niños suelen tener un pH un poco más elevado para que no pique en los ojos, o se usan otro tipo de conservantes e ingredientes que eviten reacciones alérgicas.

Si quieres ahorrar y no ir a la playa o piscina con 5 botes de crema diferente, la mejor opción es usar un protector solar infantil para toda la familia, eso sí, recuerda usar también pantalla física como textiles y sombreros, y no uses la crema solar como única baza para proteger la piel de la radiación solar.

Artículo de interés: ¿Cuánta cantidad debo aplicar de crema solar para que funcione?

9. Qué ocurre si un protector solar supera la fecha PAO.

El PAO (Perido After Opening) nos indica cuanto dura el producto cosmético abierto. Periodo en el que se asegura la efectividad y seguridad del producto cosmético.

A partir de esa fecha, el fabricante NO asegura que siga funcionando como lo hace y tampoco se hace responsable de cualquier efecto adverso.

El cerebro de alguno estará maquinando ahora mismo lo siguiente: que lista la industria que nos vende productos que caducan en 6 Meses pero seguro que no lo hacen, solo lo hacen para vender, etc.

En realidad se realizan ensayos de estabilidad y en función del tipo de fórmula cosmética podemos tener un periodo mayor o menor. No es lo mismo una crema que contenga agua, que un bálsamo que solo contenga mantecas o ceras.

En el caso de los protectores solares, ajustarse a la fecha del PAO es cuestión de prevención y de lo que se conoce como Beneficio/Riesgo.

El beneficio sería apurar la crema solar caducada (y tus euros) al máximo, pero el riesgo es que los filtros solares no protejan lo que indica en el envase y con ello pueda existir riesgo de quemadura solar e inflamación cutánea (que no tienes por que ver como ocurre en la dermis). Fin.

En el caso de los productos cosméticos “normales” como una crema hidratante el riesgo es el crecimiento bacteriano y , con ello, posible infección cutánea.

Es cierto que no hace falta que apuntes el día exacto, pero sin duda, si tu solar lleva abierto desde el 2018, mejor que lo tires a la basura. 

10. ¿Puede el protector solar estropear el esmalte de uñas?

Nitrocelulosa, agente filmógeno en esmaltes de uñas

Sí, todo depende de su composición.

Las fórmulas cosméticas necesitan disolventes (también llamados solubilizantes o solventes) para que los compuestos químicos se disuelvan y tener una emulsión homogénea sin tropezones.

Un disolvente habitual es el alcohol denat. que puede hacer que tus esmaltes se deterioren si su concentración es elevada.

Otro factor es el tipo de filtro que se use.

Los filtros inorgánicos son óxidos metálicos, y como hablamos aquí, son duros de pelar y disolver, y en tus cremas solo están dispersos. En cambio, los filtros orgánicos se solubilizan mejor, por que al final son compuestos orgánicos. Sin embargo, su carácter orgánico hace que los ingredientes de los esmaltes de uñas puedan disolverse.

Uno de los ingredientes principales es la nitrocelulosa que se usa como formador de película en los esmaltes de uñas (más info aquí y aquí ). Pero, la nitrocelulosa es soluble en disolventes como el ethanol o acetatos, lo que hará que sea el gancho perfecto para cremas solares con filtros químicos de alta protección.

¿Cómo saber si tu crema solar puede arruinar el esmalte de uñas? Mirando la composición, o haciendo una prueba.

Artículo de interés: ¿Puede tu protector solar estropear tu manicura?, entrada en el Blog de Cosméticos al desnudo de Cristina Carvajal

11. ¿Una piel con fototipo IV necesita crema solar?

La diferencia entre los fototipos es la cantidad de melanina que tenemos.

En el caso de pieles con fototipo IV existe mayor concentración del pigmento eumelanina, que da un color más oscuro, y menor de feomelanina, colores más claros. Lo mismo que ocurre con la fibra capilar.

Cuanta mayor eumelanina de manera natural tengas, mayor tiempo de exposición a la radiación UV necesitas para ponerte moreno y que se produzca eritema respecto de un fototipo II. Sin embargo, no significa que no necesites usar crema solar, sobre todo cuando estamos hablando de exposiciones solares prolongadas.

Aún así, aunque una piel con fototipos V-VI tenga una mayor cantidad de pigmento, no significa que las arrugas, hiperpigmentación y perdida de elasticidad no puedan aparecer.

Asociaciones de dermatólogos recomiendan usar igualmente crema solar, en especial, cuando la exposición va a ser prolongada y de manera continuada (meses de verano, trabajos al aire libre o zonas con indices ultravioleta elevados).

Añadir que en fototipos oscuros, las manchas de acné posinflamatorias (PIH) son aún más problemáticas de eliminar que en pieles con fototipos más claros. Por lo que quizás, en este aspecto, sea aún más interesante usar una crema solar y evitar pelearnos con los tratamientos despigmentates a la larga.

Artículos de interés: Sunscreen Fact Sheet, British Association of Dermatologist ; Sun protection, Organización Mundial de la Salud (WHO).

117 pensamientos en “33 preguntas frecuentes sobre cosmética: ¿puede un adulto usar crema solar infantil? ¿estropea el esmalte de uñas? (Parte II) #HappyBirthdayToMe

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