Por qué tu champú lleva EDTA | Quelantes

Cuando buscas en google EDTA y cosméticos te salen 5 de cada 10 páginas alertando de su uso, del que se dicen cosas tan maravillosas como estas:

El EDTA debilita la barrera natural de la piel para que los ingredientes activos del producto, penetren de manera más profunda. Por lo que si estos ingredientes son tóxicos, al penetrar en nuestro cuerpo a través de la piel o el cuero cabelludo, a la larga puede haber el riesgo de cáncer de piel. También puede llegar a provocar irritaciones, eczemas y alergias en personas sensibles. Es un potente irritante ocular.”

“EDTA. El ácido etilendiaminotetraacético o EDTA se utiliza en la industria cosmética como conservante. Este compuesto se acumula en el organismo y es difícil de expulsar. Es perjudicial para los riñones y el hígado.”

“Aditivo muy utilizado por su poder quelante. Se suele encontrar en multitud de cosméticos, incluyendo productos infantiles y toallitas de bebé. Se acumula en el organismo.”

Para saber si la persona que escribe está alertando sobre algo real o un simple copy-paste me suelo fijar en las referencias que pone.. Oops normalmente, no hay ninguna. Es lo que ocurre con esta fobia a las sustancias químicas (los químicos somos personas) y el afán de desinformar por falta de in-formación. 

El EDTA es una sustancia química habitual en los laboratorios de química analítica, ya que se usa en las famosas valoraciones/volumetrias complexométricas o de formación de complejos. 

Qué es un compuesto quelante

Un quelante es una sustancia química que da abrazos. Sin más. Pero no da abrazos a cualquiera, solo a quién le interesa. Esta, sería la definición de quelante sencilla. Vamos con la versión más científica. 

Cuando hablamos de sustancias con propiedades quelantes estamos hablando de sustancias químicas capaces de donar electrones y coordinarse con un centro metálico que tenga libres sus orbitales moleculares, pero algunos, también son capaces de aceptar densidad eléctrica en orbitales de tipo π. A este tipo de moléculas las llamamos quelatos o ligandos de coordinación.

Podemos tener desde sustancias tan simples como el amoniaco (ligando monodentado) a otras más complejas, como es el caso del EDTA (ácido etilendiaminotetraacético, hexadentado). Su diferencia está en el número de átomos /enlaces (dobles o triples) que poseen para poder coordinarse a un centro metálico.

Complejo de coordinación de un metal (M, rojo) y el ligando EDTA  (negro). Fuente (Wikipedia).

El EDTA, tiene 6 átomos donadores de electrones (posiciones) por los que puede unirse a otra sustancia química: 2 átomos de nitrógeno del grupo funcional amino y 6 oxígenos de los grupos carboxilícos, lo que no significa que siempre los use todos.

Cuando en una disolución tenemos centros metálicos como el cobre, mercurio, plomo, cadmio, o calcio, entre otros,  el EDTA lo atrapa y evita interferencias en el resto de la disolución. Por así decirlo, atrapa a los metales para que no molesten en la acción del resto de las sustancias químicas presentes. Por eso, se añaden a los productos cosméticos. Y por esto, también se usan quelantes en tratamientos de intoxicación por metales pesados. 

Agua dura y efecto antimicrobiano

La presencia de calcio o magnesio procedente del agua puede hacer que, aunque estén en poca cantidad, comiencen reacciones de descomposición junto con otros ingredientes del producto cosmético y dar lugar a un enraciamiento pero también, un agua con mucha cal (muy dura) puede entorpecer en el sistema detergente de un champú disminuyendo su detergencia. La presencia del EDTA ayuda a eliminar iones de la disolución y evitar que interfieran. 

En si mismo, el EDTA también tiene propiedades antimicrobianas frente a las bacterias gram-negativas (responsables de infecciones, p.ej. P. aeruginosa), de ahí que se incluya como coadyuvante (booster) del sistema conservante antimicrobiano. La presencia de quelantes como el EDTA lo que hacen es aumentar la permeabilidad de las membranas celulares de las bacterias, bloqueando el hierro (efecto quelante), paran el metabolismo celular, e inhiben el crecimiento bacteriano y de microorganismos. 

USO EN INDUSTRIA Y ALIMENTACIÓN

Que elimine calcio de un agua dura es especialmente útil en detergencia,  evita una perdida del color en los tejidos y posible calcificación de la lavadora. De hecho, algunos fabricantes de detergentes te indican la dosis necesaria en función de la ropa, pero también de la dureza del agua:

Fuente: https://www.wvsb.at/Wasserhaerte.htm

El EDTA también se emplea en la industria del papel, industria alimentaria (conservas), productos sanitarios y medicina. De estos últimos es interesante conocer su uso en terapias por intoxicaciones con metales pesados, o en productos oculares.

REGULACIÓN, TOXICIDAD Y EXPOSICIÓN CUTÁNEA

El último informe sobre su seguridad fue realizado por el CIR, un comité independiente de expertos en EEUU. Este, data de 2002, pero fue revisado en Junio de 2019.  Durante la primera evaluación, en 2002, se concluye que a nivel dérmico las concentraciones empleadas por la industria cosmética no suponen un riesgo para el consumidor y son seguras.

Cuando abrieron la evaluación en 2019, primero se actualizan los datos nuevos publicados desde la fecha del último informe y se revisa si son relevantes para reabrir la evaluación. Por eso, aunque existían datos a nivel de uso, algún que otro ensayo in-vitro y casos,  no hay suficiente evidencia en referente  en términos de seguridad y cosmética para reabrir la evaluación

En 2004 se publicó la evaluación de riesgos (Risk management) de la comisión europea acerca del EDTA y su sal de sodio (Na4EDTA). Referente a su exposición a nivel dérmico (recordemos que hablamos de cosméticos, no agua que bebemos), se determinó que la absorción y permeabilidad cutánea del EDTA es muy baja (< 0.001%). Durante los ensayos cutáneos, no se observo como efecto adverso irritación cutánea,  solo en casos extremos de una disolución al 80% de EDTA, es decir, cuando manejamos la materia prima. 

Artículo relacionado: [Serie] Evidencia científica II: ¿Qué diferencia hay entre un ensayo in vivo, in vitro, ex vivo e in silico?

Biodegradabilidad y acumulación

Realmente, el grueso del uso y síntesis del EDTA no está en la industria cosmética si no en la industria de detergentes, textil y del papel. Sí, puede que una agenda al año aporte más EDTA al medioambiente que el de una crema. Quizás tengamos que replantearnos dejar la papelería (o reducirla) si nuestro objetivo es dejar de usar EDTA por problemas medioambientales.

Pero la fobia al EDTA no esta solo en la industria cosmética, si no en nutrición referente al agua de consumo humano, donde en ocasiones nos recomiendan comprar agua embotellada y no beber del grifo. A esto último yo me pregunto: ¿de dónde sale el agua embotellada? ¿síntesis por reacciones entre H2 + O2? No creo.

Uno de los miedos del agua de consumo puede ser que contenga agentes quelantes, pero para que se mantengan y lleguen al grifo tendríamos que hablar de sustancias que no podemos degradar o biodegradar en las plantas de tratamiento. Al ser un agente quelante y  formar un complejo de coordinación, su biodegradabilidad va a estar ligada al metal que se haya unido y su estabilidad termodinámica.

Complejos quelados con calcio son más degradables que los que contienen hierro. Aún así, en las plantas de tratamiento esto se puede eliminar sometiendo al medio a un cambio de pH (entre 9-10).  En el caso de los sedimentos o residuos sólidos, se estima que se degrada de manera aeróbica en unos 300 días, aunque debido a que los complejos son solubles en agua, su concentración suele ser baja. 

Además se puede degradar/eliminar usando sistema de filtrado con carbón activo, por cambio de pH (medio alcalino con peróxido de hidrógeno, medio básico), térmicamente en disolución acuosa, degradación fotocatalítica (radiación UV, 20 días) o métodos de ozonización, entre otros.

Cuando se degrada se convierte en el ácido etilendiamintriacético (ED3A) que a su vez se degrada a través de ciclación intramolecular en una piperazina (ketopiperazinediacetate, KPDA). Esta última es biodegradable en menos de 10 días. Debido a esto, según la evaluación de riesgos, la acumulación de EDTA no es esperable. 

Descomposición de EDTA

Si bien es cierto, que cuando hablamos de contaminación medioambiental tenemos que ser un poco más realistas. Como mencionamos al principio, el grueso se usa en la industria del papel, detergencia y/o textiles cuyo impacto medioambiental estará ligado a la zona geográfica, regulación/auditorias y sistema de tratamiento de aguas residuales. 

El por qué de esta historia

¿Y por qué me has contado toda esta historia? Por que aquí en Mordor tengo un agua la mar de apetitosa, tiene un pH de 8.5 (ríete tú de que vendan agua alcalina embotellada) y además es muy dura (dHº >14). Por eso, encontrar un champú es algo complejo. Parece que he dado en el clavo y he comprado la versión maxi de 900 mL de Amazon. 

¿Qué champú es? Uno de Davines, el Yha Prep Shampoo.* Contiene tensioactivos suaves como los isetionatos de los que ya hablamos aquí, co-surfactantes como betainas (anfótero),  glucosido (no iónico), sulfoacetato (iónico), incluye siliconas no volátiles como la amodimethicone, pero que deja el pelo estupendo, ya que se adhiere selectivamente a la zona del cabello dañado. La única pega serían los perfumes tipo limonene o linalool, de los que no soy muy fan y el precio, que ronda los 15-20€/250 mL.

Y contiene EDTA. Además, da igual donde lo use, que deja el pelo limpio durante varios días y no con mucho frizz. Mi descubrimiento del año. Deja el pelo como recién salido de la peluquería

INGREDIENTES:AQUA, SODIUM LAUROYL METHYL ISETHIONATE, GLYCERIN, COCAMIDOPROPYL BETAINE, SODIUM LAURYL SULFOACETATE, DECYL GLUCOSIDE, POLYSORBATE 20, SODIUM COCOYL GLYCINATE, PARFUM, BENZYL ALCOHOL, SODIUM COCOYL ISETHIONATE, ACRYLATES/C10-30 ALKYL ACRYLATE CROSSPOLYMER, SODIUM METHYL 2-SULFOLAURATE, SODIUM LAUROAMPHOACETATE, SODIUM METHYL COCOYL TAURATE, SODIUM BENZOATE, GLYCOL DISTEARATE, POLYQUATERNIUM-7, TRISODIUM ETHYLENEDIAMINE DISUCCINATE, DISODIUM 2-SULFOLAURATE, AMODIMETHICONE, DISODIUM EDTA, SODIUM HYDROXIDE, COCO-GLUCOSIDE, POLYQUATERNIUM-10, C11-15 PARETH-7, LAURETH-9, GLYCERYL OLEATE, GLYCERYL STEARATE, LIMONENE, LINALOOL.


Bibliografía

*Link afiliado de Amazon.es. Consulta la política de publicidad aquí

**Post patrocinado por PubMed (ironía). 

[1] Cosmetic Microbiology, A Practical Handbook, Daniel K. Brannan, 1997. 

[2] Preservative-Free and Self-Preserving Cosmetics and Drugs: Principles and Practice, Jon J. Kabara and Donald S. Orth, 1997.

[3] Oviedo C, Rodríguez J. EDTA: the chelating agent under environmental scrutiny. Química Nova. 2003 Dec;26(6):901–5.

[4] Edetic acid (EDTA) in Drinking-water, Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality, WHO, 2003.

[5] Halla N, Fernandes I, Heleno S, Costa P, Boucherit-Otmani Z, Boucherit K, et al. Cosmetics Preservation: A Review on Present Strategies. Molecules. 2018 Jun 28;23(7):1571.

[6] Smith SW, The role of chelation in the treatment of other metal poisonings, J Med Toxicol. 2013 Dec;9(4):355-69. doi: 10.1007/s13181-013-0343-6.

[7] Pinto IS, Neto IF, Soares HM, Biodegradable chelating agents for industrial, domestic, and agricultural applications–a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014 Oct;21(20):11893-906. doi: 10.1007/s11356-014-2592-6.

[8] Tetrasodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate, Summary Risk Assessment Report , ECHA, 2004. 

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  64. Mi esposo sigue amándome todos los días después de que el Dr. John (doctorjohn909@gmail.com) me ayudó con su acto de lanzar un hechizo para traerlo de vuelta a mí, Gilberto y yo habíamos tenido una relación difícil después de que di a luz a nuestro primer hijo. hija pero hoy estoy tan feliz porque después de la intervención del doctor John, Gilberto ha cambiado para ser un esposo romántico y cariñoso y estas eran las cosas que no había estado haciendo antes. Creo que esto demostrará a la gente que el Dr. John es un poderoso ayudante espiritual.

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